Objectives and Activities at DHO Posting

> Objectives and Activities at DHO Posting

  1. At the end of the posting, the student shall be able to:
    • Describe the concept of Public Health and its relevance to the National Health Goals and the Vision of the Ministry of Health
    • Describe the Health Care Delivery System.
    • Describe Malaysia’s National Health Programs with emphasis on Family Health Development (including Maternal and Child Health, Nutrition, School Health, Adolescent Health, HIV/AIDS, Mental Health, Care of Children with Special Needs, Care of the Elderly Disease Control, Environmental Health, Occupational Health and Food Quality Control.
    • Describe the National Surveillance System and the Health Management Information System.
    • Describe the Principles and Practice of Food Quality Control in relation to the Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations.1985.
    • Identify the Environmental and Occupational Hazards at workplace and their control in relation to the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1994.
    • Describe the importance of Water Quality and Sanitation to human health in relation to law and regulations governing it.
    • Describe the principles of Health Education and Promotion and its importance in Wellness and Disease Prevention and Control.
    • Describe the principles of Disease Outbreak Investigation, Control and Management.
    • Describe the principles of Research Methodology.
  2. The 1 month program will have the following broad divisions:

    • Survey for Community Diagnosis.
    • Clinicosocial case studies.
    • Visits to factories and places of public health importance.
    • Posting to Klinik Kesihatan.
    • Posting to Office of the District Health Officer.
  3. Objectives of Community Diagnosis Survey:

    • Describe the concepts, principles and methods of a Community Diagnosis in a field setting.
    • Gather, understand and present secondary data.
    • Develop and use data collection tools like questionnaires and other forms of field observation tools in community settings.
    • Explore issues of culture, religion, ethnicity and their impact on health of the community.
    • Appreciate ethical issues involved in Community Diagnosis.
    • Plan and implement appropriate community intervention strategies for community education, health promotion and health screening.
  4. The specific competencies to be gained during the posting are:

    • Selected Competency : Obtain health related data about social and cultural environments, growth and development factors, needs and interests

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Teams gather qualitative and quantitative data from secondary sources and interviews
    • Selected Competency : Analyze social, cultural, economic and political factors that influence health.

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Students analyze many factors that impact health within the community.
    • Selected Competency : Apply principles of community organization in planning programs.

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Students work with community members to plan a community forum where they facilitate issue selection and future steps for community action.
    • Selected Competency : Communicating health and health education needs, concerns and resources.

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Students interview members of the community and service providers to learn about the perceptions of each group and the assets and needs identified. Students Impart Health education to select community.
    • Selected Competency : Demonstrate both proficiency and accuracy in oral and written presentations.

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Students present their findings in a comprehensive CD document.
    • Selected Competency : Apply appropriate research principles and methods in community diagnosis.

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Community diagnosis involves both quantitative and qualitative research in a real community setting.
    • Selected Competency : Assess the merits and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

      Selected Community Diagnosis Experience : Students must discern the merits and limitations of each type of data.
  5. Objectives of posting to the DHO:

    • Describe the activities of the District health office.
    • Enumerate the staff, their training and job responsibilities.
    • Describe how the various national programs are organized, implemented and monitored.
    • Demonstrate familiarity with the various records and reports, maintained at the DHO’ office.
    • Explain the methods and tools used for program implementation and evaluation.
  6. DHO Activity:

    • Each day take one area of activity of the health office.
    • Interact with the concerned health personnel. Get information on their training and job responsibilities.
    • Accompany the personnel in the office and in the community.
    • Observe how they interact with the community and perform the various tasks that they have to perform.
    • Observe critically the mode of data collection, the records that are maintained, the method of compilation and analysis and the reports generated.
    • Elicit the methods of data verification, quality standards followed and achieved.
    • Critically review some of the reports.
  7. Objectives of visits to Factories:

    • Describe the key principles that underlie the application of environmental, biological, and medical assessments to prevent occupational injury and disease.
    • Able to describe how exposure assessment, industrial hygiene, biological monitoring, and medical surveillance assist in the evaluation and prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses.
    • Describe the common occupational health problems of an individual, a population, or a work environment.
    • Appreciate the major hazards encountered in the workplace, and describe the approach to the prevention of illnesses and injuries associated with these hazards.
    • Achieve familiarity with several topical areas in occupational health such as employee assistance programs, health promotion, new approaches to comprehensive health improvement, drug testing, and impairment and disability, procedures, techniques, methods and other tools for hazard identification, risk evaluation and risk management.
  8. Activities at each factory or area of public health interest:

    • Observe the process.
    • Observe the environment. Describe the environment with reference to layout, lighting and ventilation, air control, heat and humidity control, worker ergonomics.
    • Identify the safety norms and precautions and any potential hazards.
    • Discuss with the personnel: The job responsibilities, Precautionary methods undertaken, Common hazards encountered, Common injuries and illnesses and remedial measures.
  9. Objectives of the food testing laboratory Posting:

    • Appreciate the role of the food testing laboratory in food safety.
    • Describe the staffing pattern of the laboratory and list the job responsibilities of the personnel.
    • Describe the methods of sample collection, transport and testing.
    • Demonstrate familiarity with records and reports maintained, the laws and penalities for deviation from food standards.
  10. Objectives of the ClinicoSocial Case Study:

    • Able to elicit history of a given problem, with reference to the agent, the host and the environmental factors.
    • In the given case explain the interaction of the factors leading to the present status of the individual.
    • Draw a plan for managing the individual describing the actions under various levels of prevention.
    • Describe the remedial actions to be taken at the family and community level.
  11. Activity of the ClinicoSocial Case Study:

    • You will be given a case of public health importance.
    • Take a detailed clinicosocial history.
    • Especially pay attention to how the condition started, developed and progressed to the present state.
    • Elicit history on the treatment seeking behavior, the decision making process and the expenditure involved.
    • Prepare a plan of action for improving the health condition.

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